Alaska’s indigenous languages now official along with English


JUNEAU, Alaska, Oct 23 (Reuters) – Alaska’s governor signed a bill on Thursday to officially recognize the state’s 20 indigenous languages in a symbolic move that gives a nod to tribal efforts to save Native American tongues at risk of dying out.

The move would make Alaska only the second U.S. state, after Hawaii, to officially recognize indigenous languages, although English would remain the official language and the state would not be required to conduct business in any other tongue.

“Alaska native young adults and students throughout the State have demonstrated remarkable success in revitalizing Alaska Native languages,” Republican Governor Sean Parnell said in a statement. “This bill reinforces that effort and recognizes the vibrant, existing Alaska Native languages of the state of Alaska.”

Parnell signed the bill in Anchorage to help kick off the Alaska Federation of Natives conference, the state’s largest annual gathering of indigenous people.

In April, the Legislature overwhelmingly passed the bill.

The law deliberately remains symbolic, featuring a provision that does not require the state or a municipal government to conduct business or government activities in languages other than English.

Lance Twitchell, a professor of native languages at the University of Alaska Southeast in Juneau, said the bill was important even if largely symbolic.

“Symbols are still very powerful,” Twitchell said in an interview. “Crosses are symbols. The American flag is a symbol.”

Recognizing the languages sends a message that they are important, he said.

The number of people who can speak Alaska’s native languages has been shrinking rapidly, as generations of young Alaskans were discouraged and even punished for speaking them.

Some native languages have only a few dozen fluent speakers left, and others are down to a few hundred.

In 2008, one of the state’s indigenous languages, Eyak, become extinct with the death of its last fluent speaker, Marie Smith.

Twitchell said he hoped Alaska would now be able to preserve and even expand knowledge of its native languages, pointing to success in revitalizing native tongues in Hawaii.

“Hawaii has gone from language decline and become one of the few areas where they are producing more native speakers than they are losing,” Twitchell said.
Mail Online

Not bothering to learn languages, imitating local accents and offering to split the bill: One in three UK tourists causes offence while on holiday


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  • Study found one in ten Brits will not attempt local language abroad 
  • 12% of those will also attempt to speak English in local dialect
  • Still, many travellers do take the time to learn key words and phrases 
  • Spain, France, Portugal are most popular half-term destinations

With the October half-term approaching, a new study from AXA has found that Spain, France and Portugal are the top European destinations to visit.

But before you jet off, take heed: one in three Britons will offend the locals while on holiday.

AXA has found that failing to speak the local language is the top indiscretion committed abroad, with one in ten admitting to it.

A survey found that one in ten Brits do not attempt to learn the local language while abroad

Of those, one in eight (12 per cent) also tries to be understood by speaking English in the local accent.

Interestingly, the reason most Brits don’t attempt to speak the language abroad has very little to do with disrespect.


1. Speaking English over local dialect – 15%

2. Adding salt to a meal – 10%

3. Using a knife and fork to eat – 9%

4. Pointing your index finger – 9%

5. Wearing shoes indoors – 8% 

6. Showing the soles of your feet – 8%

7. Blowing your nose in public – 8%

8. Wearing white after Labour Day – 6%

9. Exposing knees and shoulders in a religious building – 6%

10. Turning down a drink from your host – 6% 

Over two thirds of those surveyed said they feel embarrassed or annoyed when they can’t make themselves understood – so they don’t even try – with the most likely to speak English being those from the South East and East Midlands. 

And while it may seem offensive to imitate the local dialect, 63 per cent admit to speaking slowly or raising their voice in an attempt to make themselves understood, while one in 12 even resort to drawing pictures to get their point across.

It’s worth noting however that this tendency is more likely to be seen in men.

Only one in six women will exaggerate their words or attempt a local accent in effort to be understood. 

Still, many travellers do take the time to teach themselves foreign phrases and key words – and it seems that manners matter most. Seventy seven per cent of those surveyed rank ‘thank you’ at the top of their list of phrases to learn, closely followed by ‘please.’ 

‘Can I have a beer please?’ is deemed the most important travel phrase by one third of all men, but it seems to be more common among younger holidaymakers. 

Nevertheless, it’s also important for tourists abroad to take note of a faux pas that can be made inadvertently – offering to split the bill in France, for example, is a common mistake.

Head of AXA Travel Insurance, David Vincent, said: ‘Whilst our report shows an encouraging two in five people do make the effort to learn some local lingo so as not to offend, it also reveals that a third of us have committed a faux pas when on holiday in a foreign country.

‘Although no one can expect to be word-perfect in a foreign language before they jet off abroad, reading up on a few of the cultural traditions and key phrases ahead of time can make the world of difference and avoid any unnecessary embarrassment.’  

Daily Mail

Are curriculum changes enough to get young people hooked on languages?


Compulsory languages at primary school level may be a positive step, but does it address the bigger picture?

Curriculum changes, a new education secretary and policy reviews all spell good things for language education. But is enough being done to join up the dots?

This academic year, primary school pupils started learning languages. A change to the curriculum now requires all schools using the national curriculum in England to teach a modern foreign language at primary key stage 2. Pupils aged seven to 11 will be learning basic French or Spanish and, in some schools, even Mandarin and Arabic.

A recent report from the British Council said that 85% of primary schools welcomed the move. “It’s a very positive step to introduce languages at key stage 2,” says Vicky Gough, schools adviser for the British Council. “But will they be able to continue the language they have chosen at secondary school?”

Gough’s comments address the bigger picture in language education: although small steps are being made, giant leaps are still a long way off.

The educational benefits of introducing compulsory languages at primary level are plentiful. From the pupils’ perspective, the learning process is thought to be easier. Research into brain development says the younger brain is more able to learn certain skills, in particular those related to languages and music. This is to do with the brain’s ability to form connections, or its neuroplasticity. In other words, a child’s brain is literally more malleable.

It is also thought that children learn languages better when they are younger because they aren’t as shy as teenagers about their accents or making mistakes. Paolo Pini, managing director of primary language support network Language Angels, says there is also a benefit to the child’s overall educational development: “Learning at an earlier age helps them to develop a forensic approach to language learning as well as developing long-term memory skills.”

From a policy perspective, however, the curriculum change hasn’t filled some of the big gaps in language teaching.

One criticism, which Gough raises, is the question of what will happen when pupils get to secondary school. There is no provision for ensuring the same languages offered at key stage 2 will be available at the secondary school the pupil attends. Considering some secondary schools can have up to 25 feeder schools, all with different languages taught to varying degrees of ability, secondary schools will be tasked with teaching students with a broad spectrum of linguistic backgrounds.

Pini’s company, Language Angels, provides primary schools with teaching specialists and resources. Pini says the majority of primaries he works with have opted to teach French as part of the new curriculum, with Spanish second most popular. Gough says she would like to see a longer list of languages available at primary level. “Our Languages for the Future report identified the languages that will be vital to the UK over the next 20 years and it would be great to see more schools teaching those languages,” she says. Mandarin, Arabic and Turkish were among the 10 languages on the list.

But such an ambitious plan is a far-off vision. Even implementing the current curriculum is a challenge, due to a fundamental lack of language teachers. “The most significant problem remains the lack of foreign-language specialist teachers available,” Pini says. “There are so few available, perhaps as a consequence of the many years in which prolonged compulsory foreign-language learning at school has been neglected, that it is impossible to sate the demand of all the primary schools in the UK.”

The coalition government’s cabinet reshuffle, which saw Nicky Morgan appointed education secretary, could see this change. In her first day on the job, she announced a review of the GCSE and A-level syllabuses, which included a large chunk of work around how languages are taught.

Morgan’s consultation took into account research conducted by an advisory board led by the Russell Group for matching up A-level teaching so it better feeds through to university level.

Katrin Kohl, German literature professor at Oxford University, who sits on the A-level Content Advisory Board (Alcab), says the emphasis on languages as simply a skill useful for employment has eroded the pleasure of language learning. “It has completely turned young people off languages,” she says.

Some of Alcab’s proposals are quite radical. It wants to see more English in A-level foreign teaching – the rationale being that, given the relatively little time available to language teaching, students may not have the intellectual tools needed within the target language to engage creatively with certain texts, such as a piece of literature or a challenging film.

Kohl says one of the most pressing needs for A-level reform is how exams are currently assessed. “The criteria are effectively: use of the spoken language; written language; and manipulation of language. There’s nothing there to do with culture,” Kohl says. “Culture might come in as a carrier of languages, but examiners aren’t expected to know what you’re writing about.”

If Alcab’s proposals were to be put in place, the A-level syllabus could see the inclusion of authors such as Gabriel García Márquez and an all-round emphasis on foreign literature and culture.

Kohl wants to move beyond the idea of languages as something that just boosts employability – including at primary level. “Kids should be taught transferable language skills, thereby opening their minds to what languages can do. This is not just something you learn bits of – it’s actually something to do with how we think,” Kohl says. “We can’t think without languages. We can’t communicate across cultures without understanding them through their languages.”

The Guardian

Second guessing that motto? Latin phrase engraved on library gets lost in translation


, , ,

  • ‘Nos secundus concieto omnia’ was thought to mean ‘we confirm all things twice’
  • But coniecto can also mean ‘guess’ – leading some to conclude that the motto meant ‘we second-guess everything’ – also an incorrect rendering
  • Officials are planning to change the phrase to ‘we encourage all’
  • The Roman numerals engraved on the library also need to be corrected to reflect the proper year 

The Latin motto engraved on the wall of a new library in Moorestown, New Jersey, got lost in translation.

Officials had thought the phrase ‘nos secundus coniecto omnia’ meant ‘we confirm all things twice.’

But residents who Googled the phrase found out the word they thought meant ‘confirm’ can also mean ‘guess’ – prompting the leaders to pledge to change it.

Google software even came up with the ironic translation ‘we second-guess everything’ for the inscription, but that was based on a misunderstanding of the language.

The Latin phrase was translated incorrectly on the Moorestown Library in New Jersey (pictured)

Moorestown architect Rick Ragan told the Burlington County Times he learned of the problem from residents who translated it online – who also came up with a wrong answer.

In fact, the Google translate software also fluffed the translation of the words, which do not mean anything in that form because they ignore the rules of Latin grammar.

But they did pick up on the fact that the word the authorities thought meant ‘check’ could also mean ‘guess’. 

Ragan says he’ll pay a stone cutter to change the phrase to something that means ‘We encourage all.’ 

He’ll also have the Roman numerals fixed to reflect the proper year.

Mayor Chris Chiacchio tells the newspaper a mistake is only a mistake if you do not have the courage to correct it. 

The phrase was cut into two of four medallions on the library – which has been a multimillion-dollar project which took years to construct.

The Latin translation was attempted by a staff member who looked through a Latin dictionary, Ragan said. 

Ragan said: ‘We’ve looked at the definition of the words. It says that the verb says, ‘think, include, conclude, judge and confirm.

‘But Google’s version, and I’m old enough to admit that I’ve never translated anything on Google or conjugated (anything). Their version is that ‘We all second-guess.’


When a library staffer took to a Latin dictionary to translate the library’s motto about checking everything twice, he or she should probably have consulted a second source.

Because by looking up each individual word, the ancient language’s grammatical rules got left behind, leading to a mess which barely means anything at all.

Even Google’s sophisticated translation software struggles with the complex rules of Latin.

While the enterprising Moorestown residents who looked up the sentence realized that ‘coniecto’ can also mean ‘guess’, the sentence as carved into the library’s stone – nos secundus coniecto omnia – still doesn’t mean anything because the grammar is incorrect.

While ‘nos’ can mean ‘we’, it is in fact unnecessary because verbs in Latin contain who is doing them in the way the word ends.

Coniecto – the verb in the sentence – means ‘I conclude’ or ‘I guess’, and is the root of the English verb ‘conjecture’. The correct ‘we’ form would be ‘coniectamus’.

Likewise, ‘secundus’ is an adjective meaning ‘second’, but even in conjunction with a verb meaning guess, does not mean ‘second-guess’.

The correct way to render ‘we confirm all things twice’ would be ‘bis verificamus omnia‘.

Bis, ‘twice’, is the adverb form of secundus (an adjective meaning ‘second’). The bi- prefix is familiar in English from words such as bicycle and biennial.

Verificamus means ‘we confirm’, and comes from the verb verificare, which in turn gives us the English word ‘verify’.

Omnia means ‘everything’, and is the root of words like omnivore and omniscient.

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Parrot Returns After Four Years – Speaking Spanish


Nigel is back with its British owner four years after he went missing from his California home – but speaks a different language.


An African Grey parrot

An African grey parrot. File Pic

A parrot that spoke English when it disappeared from its California home four years ago has been reunited with its owner – but it now speaks Spanish.

Nigel, an African grey parrot, was reunited last week with his owner, Darren Chick, a Briton who lives in Torrance.

When it disappeared Nigel spoke English “with a British accent”, according to the Daily Breeze newspaper.

“He’s doing perfect,” Mr Chick told the newspaper.

“It’s really weird. I knew it was him from the minute I saw him.”

The reunion was facilitated by Teresa Micco, a veterinarian who has running ads for months for her own missing bird, Benjamin.

When she was contacted by somebody who had found a bird, Ms Micco realised it was not her bird and tracked down the actual owner.

Mr Chick says the reunion brought tears of joy to his eyes, despite the fact that Nigel bit him when he first tried to pick him up.

It is not known where Nigel was for the past four years, and Mr Chick said he does not know how the bird went from speaking English to speaking Spanish.

Sky News

From J-Lo to Strictly: why more students are learning Spanish


Spanish is helping to reverse the decade-long decline in the number of students taking language GCSEs.

Jennifer Lopez at World Cup, Brazil

Jennifer Lopez (left) joins the rapper Pitbull and the Brazilian singer Claudia Leitte at the opening ceremony of the 2014 World Cup. American Latino culture seems to be fuelling an interest in Spanish. Photograph: Kirsty Wigglesworth/AP

Carla Cox had just returned from a holiday in Spain when she was asked by school to make her GCSE choices. She’d enjoyed visiting the country and, having spent time experimenting with Spanish, realised she would be able to get around more easily if she was a fluent speaker.

“There are places you could go as a backpacker where people speak English, but they would obviously be more touristy places,” she said, adding that she hopes to explore South America. “I think it would be more interesting to go to places where they don’t speak English, where you get a better idea of the culture.”

Cox isn’t the only young person with a growing interest in Spanish. The number of UK students taking GCSEs in a foreign language rose 17% last summer, a turnaround welcomed by educationalists, who warned that interest in the subject area had plummeted over the past decade. Of the three main language GCSEs studied in UK schools, Spanish is the only one to be increasing in popularity year-on-year since 2011: while entries to French and German this summer remained steady, Spanish continued to soar. The number of students taking the subject is up by almost a third on 2012.

Andrew Hall, chief executive of the AQA exam board, predicts that it is a matter of time before Spanish overtakes French to become the most commonly taught language in schools.

Its popularity is down to a number of a cultural factors, according to Simon Coffey, course tutor of PGCE French and Spanish at King’s College London, who points to Spain’s popularity as a family holiday destination. The number of Brits travelling there this year increased by 5.8% on 2013: “We’re always asking people why, and the same reasons crop up – the perceived importance of Spanish in the world and also the fact that people go on holiday there and we can’t underestimate the importance of that as a factor.”

Memories of a week in Benidorm with mum and dad don’t make Spanish cool – that’s down to Shakira. Yes, really. Coffey points to the growing mainstream appeal of American Latino culture that has followed in the footsteps of fast food, hip-hop and Hollywood to become an American cultural export to the UK. “Spanish is cool partly because of the holiday factor in the European sense but also because it’s got Jennifer Lopez, Shakira, all the famous Latino singers in the States,” he said. “French and German don’t have that sort of global appeal because they’re not present in youth culture in the same way.”

Kristina Hardy, a Spanish teacher at Helenswood Academy in East Sussex, agrees. She has noticed that students are attracted to the Latino culture they see on TV. “Students are used to hearing Spanish more in music – like Shakira. They go mad listening to her songs,” she said. TV programmes such as Strictly Come Dancing, which features traditional Latin American dances such as the paso doble and the tango, have had an influence, she adds.

According to Coffey, Spanish appeals to a much wider audience. “German and French have for a long time now suffered from a sort of class prejudice – they tend to appeal in particular to middle class children, whereas Spanish has a much more democratic appeal for reasons which we need to research, and it seems to appeal to a broader range of socio-economic groups.” The gender gap of Spanish students is narrower, with more boys studying the language, he adds.

There is the myth that Spanish is easier than French, said Coffey. He said that at a basic level, Spanish grammar seems a lot easier than French or German, and this could well be a pull. “In terms of pronunciation and spelling it’s also easier than French because it’s spelt more phonetically. I can say a word in French, and people haven’t got a clue how to spell it – it’s got five vowels together or something. Spanish is easier for children, especially those who struggle with writing.”

The growing popularity of Spanish may not be ideal for French and German – but in the current climate, it’s something to be positive about.

Though a recent rise in applications to language GCSEs offers a glimmer of hope to linguists, the picture is still bleak. The drastic falls in the numbers studying languages is yet to be reversed at A-level or degree level, and some universities have been forced to close their foreign language departments.

For Coffey, the situation is so depressing that a surge in popularity for any language is good news. “Numbers for A-level have dropped dramatically for modern languages and they continue to decline. Any success story is good, and Spanish is a success story, relatively speaking.”

The Guardian

Confusing ‘jam’ for ‘condom’ and nine other mistakes while learning French


From being overfamiliar to mixing up your homophones, language tutors share their advice on avoiding common faux pas

SurpriseWant to avoid unintentionally announcing you are a “pregnant animal” at the dinner table? Photograph: ITV / Rex Features

Getting led astray by false friends

“Un préservatif” is a condom. Not jam. Don’t try and buy some to take home for your gran. This word is similar in a lot of Romance languages: preservativo (Spanish), preservativo (Italian), preservativo (Portuguese), prezervativ (Romanian).

Lindsay Dow, Lindsay Does Languages

Reading French like it is English

In French we simply do not write exactly what we hear and we do not say all that is written down. For instance, a typical beginner’s mistake is to apply the same thought process when reading English as French. A famous example is the word “Paris”, which many beginners pronounce with the “s”. The general rule is that in French we do not pronounce the last consonant unless it is followed by a vowel. There will always be an annoying exception but it is only there to confirm the rule.

Katia Mohandi, director, Home Language

Making a statement instead of asking a question

In everyday spoken French, questions tend to be asked with a syntactic structure that is identical to an affirmation. For example, “Tu veux du pain?”(You want bread?) If you remove the question mark this sentence becomes affirmative. In this case, the only marker signalling interrogation is intonation: the tone must be raised at the end of the sentence. It’s a common error to forget to raise the tone at the end. This can get you into difficult situations as you can accidentally make a statement instead of asking a question – eg Vous ne venez pas? – translating as “Are you not coming?” or “You are not coming,” depending on intonation.

Benoît Guilbaud, senior French language tutor, Manchester University’s language centre

Forgetting there is life outside of your textbook

A book is a great way to practice writing, grammar and vocabulary, but it doesn’t make you speak. To practice your listening and speaking skills, you need to listen to the radio, watch TV, debates and films, meet and speak to natives without being scared of making mistakes.

I recommend my students watch and listen to anything they are interested in, whether it is beauty, cooking, news or travel. Listen or watch one of these every day in the background while travelling, dusting, cooking. Soon you will start to understand one word, then three. The more you do it, the quicker you’ll improve.

Sophie Marette, managing director, Voulez-vous parler

Mixing up homophones

A difficulty for French learners is that there are so many homophones: for example, verb conjugations that are pronounced the same but spelt differently (“tu es” v “elle est,” “tu vas” v “il va”, etc).

We conducted an experiment in March 2013 where we reorganised early lessons in a way that didn’t introduce two homophones in the same lesson. This improved retention by 1.5%.

Gina Gotthilf, head of international growth, Duolingo

Taking a back seat

You learn languages: you’re not taught them. It is crucial to have people that you can ask questions when you are stuck, but you need to find questions to ask them yourself. Start by learning and using a few words and phrases. You’ll find questions start popping up. Then find someone to answer those questions for you.

Ben Whately, chief operating officer, Memrise

Directly translating phrases (with embarassing consequences)

Sometimes, it’s important to remember that a phrase in a particular language doesn’t necessarily have a direct translation or comparison in the native language. Try to learn whole phrases or chunks of language that mean what you want to say.

At dinner, my British guest directly translated “I am full” as “Je suis plein”, which means “I’m pregnant” – and not in a good way either as “être pleine” is for pregnant animals only. Learn the whole phrase: “je n’en peux plus” (I can’t take any more) to avoid animal-like pregnancy at dinner times.

Malika Arrais, language tutor at The Language Gallery

Getting bogged down in practical vocabulary

It is tempting to think that it is most useful to be able to say things like “Where is the bus stop?” that have a clear, practical function. But your real first aim should be to get to a point where you can enjoy a conversation. If you can make someone laugh in the language, if you can feel the excitement of a real human connection, then your motivation to keep on learning will soar – and remaining motivated is the most important part of learning a new language.

Ben Whately, Memrise

Being overly familiar

French learners always seem to have a problem when using “tu” and “vous”. Remember: “vous” is for your boss or a stranger and “tu” is for a friend. British learners of French tend to use “tu” for everyone because it is the easier form to remember. Use it incorrectly in the wrong context, and you just seem … well, a bit disrespectful.

Malika Arrais, language tutor, The Language Gallery

Forgetting to record your progress (and your cringey mistakes)

Sometimes it can feel like you’re never going to improve. Record your progress: make little videos on your phone, or write some sentences in a notebook. Nobody has to see but you. A few months down the line, look back, cringe, and then be proud of how far you’ve come.

The Guardian

Pope ditches Latin as official language of Vatican synod


VATICAN CITY, Oct 6 (Reuters) – In a break with the past, Pope Francis has decided that Latin will not be the official language of a worldwide gathering of bishops at the Vatican.

A cardinal made the announcement at the start of the first working day of the two-week assembly, known as a synod, where about 200 Roman Catholic bishops from around the world are discussing themes related to the family..

Italian, the lingua franca of the Vatican, would become the synod’s official language, he said.

In past synods, Latin was the official language of documents for the meetings and some of the participants chose to speak in Latin. The pope decided to make the break in order to streamline the proceedings, officials said.

The move was a break with Francis’s predecessor, Pope Benedict, who two years ago started a new Vatican department to promote the study and use of Latin in the Roman Catholic Church and beyond.

When Benedict announced on Feb. 11, 2013 that he was stepping down, the first pope to do so in 600 years, he read a statement in Latin. Only one reporter listening to a live audio feed in the Vatican press room understood what he was saying.

The use of Latin in the Church has greatly diminished since the old-style Latin Mass was phased out more than 40 years ago in favour of local languages.

Latin remains the official language of the universal Church. It is used as the language of reference for translating major documents into modern languages. (Reporting By Philip Pullella; Editing by Janet Lawrence)

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Mail Online

British retail boss sorry for anti-French remarks


LONDON (AP) — It was a speech that got lost in translation.

The boss of British retail chain John Lewis apologized Friday for saying France is “in decline” and “finished.”

The Times newspaper reported that managing director Andy Street had made the critical comments at an event for entrepreneurs in London this week.

It said he described France as “sclerotic, hopeless and downbeat,” and said “nothing works and worse, nobody cares about it.”

Street also described the Gare du Nord station in Paris — terminus for Eurostar trains from London — as “the squalor pit of Europe” and told his audience: “If you’ve got investments in French businesses, get them out quickly.”

In a statement Friday, Street said his comments “were supposed to be lighthearted views, and tongue in cheek.”

“On reflection I clearly went too far,” he said. “I regret the comments, and apologize unreservedly.”

The French embassy in London was unamused by the comments. It told the Times that France had the world’s fifth-largest economy, with world-class public services, a first-rate health care system and higher workforce productivity than many other developed countries.

John Lewis operates upmarket department stores in Britain. It does not have any stores in France but is planning to launch a website for French customers.

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Ten things you never knew about… translation

Today is International Translation Day, celebrated each year on September 30, which is the feast day of St Jerome, patron saint of translators.

The Bible is the most translate bookThe Bible is the most translate book[GETTY]

1. St Jerome translated the Bible into Latin in the 4th century. His translation, called The Vulgate, was the official Catholic Bible in the 16th century.

2. According to Unesco’s Index Translationum, the most translated authors of fiction are Agatha Christie, Jules Verne and William Shakespeare.

3. The most translated book is The Bible, with Pinocchio in second place.

4. The word ‘translate’ comes from the Latin for ‘to move from one place to another’.

5. Genesis 1:1 has been translated into Klingon as “Daq tagh joH’a’ chenmoHta’ chal je tera”.

The languages most often translated into others are English, French, German, Russian and Italian

6. Tolstoy’s original text for War And Peace in Russian and French contains about 460,000 words. The English translation has about 560,000.

7. The term black hole for a collapsed star was opposed by the French, as its literal translation into French is a rude term.

8. The languages most often translated into others are English, French, German, Russian and Italian.

9. The most common for translation into are German, French, Spanish, English and Japanese.

10. “Poetry is what gets lost in translation,” Robert Frost (1874-1963).

Daily Express